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London

England, United Kingdom


Date of opening10 Jan 1863
Network length402 km (249.84 mi)
Stations270
Lines11        Line history cityrailtransit.com
Stations per line24.55
Avg. station distance1,552 m (0.96 mi)
Avg. line length36.55 km (22.71 mi)
*with transfer stations counted once
Numerical data by J. Serradell, 18 Sep 2011
DLR not included (31.4 km, 39 stations). East London Line removed (will be assigned to Overground). Overground: 86 km, 55 st.
System typeMetro, known as Underground
Daily ridership (by J. Kennes)3.21 million (as of 2011)
Daily ridership per km (per mi)7,980 (4,960)
Fare (10 km/10 stops; by UBS)2.75 EUR (as of 2009); access/exit gates (tube), honour system (DLR), smartcard ('Oyster')
TrackLeft, gauge: 1435 mm
Power supplyThird rail, 600 V, 750 V (DLR)
Air-conditioned trainsCircle, District, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines
Walk-through trainsMetropolitan Line, DLR
Rubber-tyred trains
Driverless linesDocklands Light Rail (since 1987)
Platform screen doorsJubilee Line extension
World Metro Database




Official map
Source: gif, © 2011 tfl.gov.uk


To-scale map
Source: cityrailtransit.com

Disclaimer: Maps are copyrighted. The previews on this page are for informational purposes only. Please respect copyright and always refer to original maps.

Transit mapsSystem map images
openbusmap.org/öpnvkarte.de
openptmap.org
tracker.geops.ch - moving trains
maps.google.com
images.google.com




Latest Openings

Jan 2016 – Croxley Rail Link, involving a re-routing of Metropolitan Line.




Upcoming Openings

 2018 – Crossrail extension from Liverpool St with tunnel stations at Farringdon, Tottenham Court Rd, Bond St, and Paddington, linking to main lines to Heathrow and Maidenhead. 4 stations.
 2018 – Crossrail with a new tunnel from Liverpool St to Whitechapel, linking to the main line from Stratford to Shenfield. New line, 2 stations.




Metro Arts and Architecture

Examples of interesting station design:


Rating: 2 stars (silver)  London

London's Underground ('tube') was not only the world's first metro but also the first to have a corporate design, including the Johnston typeface (Edward Johnston 1916), the roundel logo (Frank Pick 1918), and the diagrammatic map (Henry C. Beck 1933). This groundbreaking concept is still in use today almost unmodified [ltmuseum.co.uk] and has influenced many other metros.

Photo: Notting Hill Gate station on the Circle Line, dating back to 1868.
There are some examples of interesting station architecture in London outside the city centre. Charles Holden is responsible for the design of fifty underground stations as well as London Transport's headquarters at 55 Broadway [tube.tfl.gov.uk]. For the Piccadilly Line stretch to Cockfosters, Holden developed a modernist approach in the 1930's. The original art deco furnishing of that time is surviving in some of the stations.

Photo: Cylindrical entrance building of Southgate station, built in 1933.
There are works of art in some of London's tube stations [tube.tfl.gov.uk]. The Jubilee Line Extension's spacious stations built in 1999 have been distinctly designed by a couple of famous architects, including Foster & Partners, Ian Ritchie and Michael Hopkins [tube.tfl.gov.uk], [lrb.co.uk], [trainweb.org], [wilson].

Photo: The daylit intermediate concourse of Southwark station (1999) by McCormac Jamieson Prichard architects.




Guided Tours

Tours of the metro system, guided by experts. For dates and reservation contact the tour operator or check their website.

2-hour tour of the world's oldest transit system. Hear the fascinating and bizarre stories behind the history and design. Travel along the proposed "Viking Line" and see the "ghost station" at the British Museum. Tour operator: getyourguide.com.




Self-Guided Tour

Try the following tour, recommended by residents or metro enthusiasts:

Visit London Transport Museum, the largest and most influential of its kind in the world, and browse for books or fancy metro memorabilia in the large attached museum store. Ride the Circle Line and take a special look at Baker Street, the world's first underground station from 1863. Note the tube logo, the ubiquitous Johnston typeface and the tube map, the three groundbreaking design elements that remain almost unchanged since the beginning of the 20th century. For some Modernist stations from the 1930s by metro station architecture guru Charles Holden, ride the Piccadilly Line to Cockfosters. Take a seat in the first row of a DLR train for elevated views of the city and the Docklands.




Metro Museums

transport museum London Transport Museum. Conserving and explaining the capital city's transport heritage, offering an understanding of the capital's past and future development. LTM aims to be the world's leading museum of urban transport. Since 1973. Location: Historic flower market building.
Address: Covent Garden Piazza, London, WC2E 7BB. At Covent Garden metro station.
Hours (check before visiting): Saturday to Thursday 10.00 to 18.00 (last admission 17.15), Friday 11.00 to 21.00. Admission: 10 GBP. Features: big museum shop, café, library, educational programmes, lectures, special events.
Reference: ltmuseum.co.uk (official website).

on occasion museum Museum Depot. Holds the majority of the London Transport Museum's collections which are not on display in Covent Garden. Houses over 370,000 items of all types, including many original works of art used for the Museum's celebrated poster collection, vehicles, signs, models, photographs, engineering drawings and uniforms. On 6000 square metres these form one of the most comprehensive and important records of urban transport anywhere in the world.
Address: 118-120 Gunnersbury Lane, London W3 8BQ. At Acton Town metro station.
Hours (check before visiting): Only during special events.
Reference: ltmuseum.co.uk (official website).




Archaeology

The Jubilee Line Extension Project has cooperated from the early planning stages in 1992 with the Museum of London Archaeology. The successful cooperation helped to prevent unplanned delays and lead to valuable discoveries about London's history [5].




Abandoned Lines

Closed sections of the London Underground network:

1. Acton Town – South Acton (28 February 1959). This short branch of the District line had been worked as a shuttle with single-car trains from 1932 until closure.

2. Holborn – Aldwych (30 September 1994). This was a short in-town branch of the Piccadilly line left over from a merger of two separate schemes during the construction phase. It was worked a shuttle for most of its active life. The line still exists and is used for filming and other special purposes.

3. Epping – Ongar (30 September 1994). The outer end of a former main line railway this line had steam-worked trains connecting with the Central line services from Epping to central London from 1949 until its electrification in 1957. It never had a regular service under London Transport operation to the centre of London and housing development in the area it served was not permitted after the war. Following closure to normal passenger traffic it has subsequently been restored as a steam operated heritage railway.

4. Green Park – Charing Cross, closed in 1999 with a new Charing Cross opening. It must have been the shortest-lived part of London Underground as it was only used for passenger traffic between 1979 and 1999 when the Jubilee line was diverted via Westminster and Waterloo on its way to Stratford.




Other Rail Transport in London

Docklands Light Rail
Overground (suburban metro)




24-Hour Services

Friday, Saturday night: Central, Victoria, Piccadilly, Jubilee, Northern (Charing Cross branch).
Monday to Saturday night: Thameslink.
Every night: Southern (commuter rail, between Gatwick Airport and London Victoria).




Express Services

Metropolitan Line skips stations on Jubilee Line. Piccadilly Line skips stations on District Line, "Express" on four-track section between Wembley Park and Watford.




Reaching the Beaches

English Channel (Atlantic Ocean): Frequent suburban line services from King's Cross, City Thameslink, London Bridge or Victoria station to Brighton (trip takes approx. 50-70 minutes) or from Gatwick airport to Brighton (30 minutes). The London, Tilbury and Southend line goes to Southend and Margate, popular resorts on the Essex coast.




Lines with a View

Docklands Light Rail (DLR) is a driverless metro, and especially from the seats in the first row you can see it all: yacht harbours, skyscrapers, the Millennium Dome and much more. The photo shows one of the red-blue DLR trains swooshing past near Limehouse station.

Photo by metrobits.org
The Docklands Light Railway passing through Canary Wharf.

Photo by Ashton Mason, ashtonmason.net
Near Canary Wharf, the DLR runs amidst the highrise buildings.

Photo by www-ccs.cs.umass.edu




Metro Fonts

Typefaces designed exclusively for this metro:

Font NameDesignerYearSampleAvailabilityReference
Johnston Edward Johnston1916paratype.com, p22.comTfL fonts, wikipedia.org




Circle Lines

Shared circle - Circle Line - 22.5 km - 27 stations - opened 1863 - completed 1884.
Pan-shaped loop - Central Line - 23 km - 14 stations - completed 1948 - near Hainault (operated as loop in peak hours only).
Abandoned or operationally split circle - Overground - 33 stations - opened 2007 - completed 2012 - split at Clapham Junction and Highbury & Islington.
Terminal loop - Piccadilly Line - 2 stations - at Heathrow, unidirectional.




Departure Procedure and Sounds

A faint chirping sound before the doors close. Announcements differ: Jubilee Line ("Please mind the doors"), Northern Line ("Stand back from the doors"), Bakerloo Line ("This train is about to depart, please mind the doors"; this is rarely said though), the rest just seem to make a beeping noise or on the Central Line just a loud kind of screech... When the train comes to a halt, there's sometimes the famous recurring "Mind the gap!" by an automated male voice (wav), sometimes a single "Mind the gap between the train and the platform" by a female voice (wav from emmaclarke.com).



Jubilee Line train departing from Canary Wharf station.

Duration: 0:13 


Arriving train and the famous "Mind the Gap!" voice. The station is probably Piccadilly Circus.

Duration: 0:21 

More videos...




Photos

  London photo gallery.Wallpaper.




Metro Movies

Films with scenes set on this metro:

1929: Blackmail
1929: Underground
1941: Confirm or Deny
1949: Passport to Pimlico
1960: Piccadilly Third Stop
1967: Dutchman, story set in New York but subway scenes filmed in London.
1969: The Bed-Sitting Room
1974: The Black Windmill
1981: An American Werewolf in London
1998: Sliding Doors
1999: Tube Tales
2002: Reign of Fire, an underground DLR section
2005: Creep
2005: V for Vendetta, features the abandoned Aldwych station which is frequently used for filming
2007: 28 Weeks Later
2007: Atonement
2008: The Cronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian
2010: Hereafter
2011: The Deep Blue Sea
2012: Skyfall




Handpicked Resources

Museum of London Archaeology Service 1998.The Big Dig. Archaeology and the Jubilee Line Extension.
londonstation.com Underground stations in hand-coloured photographs
dougrose.co.ukLondon's Underground Edwardian Tile Patterns.
tfl.gov.uk Official website
maps.google.co.ukUnderground Journeys. A map of Charles Holden's work for London Underground.
Lee, Frankflee.com Artistic photo essay in black and white
Ovenden, MarkLondon Underground by Design. Penguin 2013.
Powell, KennethThe Jubilee Line Extension. Laurence King 2000.
Taylor, David J.New Architecture for the Underground: Planning for the Future. Capital Transport 2001.




Generic Links for London Underground

Wikipedia entry at wikipedia.org
Urbanrail.net entry at urbanrail.net
Railway Gazette search at railwaygazette.com
Discussion at skyscrapercity.com
System photos at Google Images
City information at wikipedia.org









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